Property Focus

Community of Owners new law

Back in March (Spain’s new rental laws in 2019), a new law was approved which brought a raft of changes. In today’s blog post we will focus on the two changes which affect holiday lettings. Community of Owners have been greatly empowered to rule on them going forward. All changes effective as from 6th of March 2019.

  1. Community of owners may now ban holiday lettings outright

Spain’s Horizontal Act has now been amended allowing Community of Owners to vote by a simple majority of 3/5 (or 60%) to ban outright holiday rentals within a community.

I had already pointed out in a blog post in 2017 that this step was necessary, as the Horizontal Property Act at the time required unanimity to ban them, which logically was never going to happen because landlords would vote against it because of their vested interest.

This change has no retroactive effects.

  1. Community of owners may now increase the community fees of all those owners who market their properties as holiday lets through holiday platforms

Spain’s Horizontal Act has been amended allowing Community of Owners to increase the communal quota assigned to a landlord of the overall community budget.

In plain English, communities of owners may now vote to increase the community quota of a property owner who uses his property for holiday lettings. They can vote to increase it by as much as 20%.

This change has no retroactive effects.

By Raymundo Larraín Nesbitt
Larraín Nesbitt Lawyers is a law firm specialised in taxation, inheritance, conveyancing, and litigation. We will be very pleased to discuss your matter with you. You can contact us by e-mail, by telephone on 952 19 22 88 or by completing our contact form.

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Posted by on 06/15/2019 10:57:00

Save 70% on your Landlord Tax Bill

Article copyrighted © 2019. Plagiarism will be criminally prosecuted.

Lawyer Raymundo Larraín explains how to profit from knocking off 70%, or more, from your tax bill on renting out in Spain (applies to both holiday lettings and long-term rentals)

Marbella-based Larrain Nesbitt Lawyers has over 16 year’s taxation & conveyancing experience at your service. Our team of native English-speaking lawyers and economists have a long track record successfully assisting expats all over Spain. You can review here our client’s testimonials.

Article copyrighted © 2017 and 2019. Plagiarism will be criminally prosecuted.


By Raymundo Larraín Nesbitt
Director of Larraín Nesbitt Lawyers
8th of March 2019


Becoming a landlord in Spain has never been easier and more profitable than today:

  • Rental yields climbed steadily by two digits (14.5%) YOY for a third consecutive year. Source: Idealista.

  • Spain has broken its tourist record for its sixth year in a row! It has consolidated its hospitality status as the world’s second tourist destination, attracting almost 83 million visitors in 2018. Sources: BBCEl País and SPI.



Adding to all this good news, following new regulation, all non-resident EU/EEA property owners, who lease property in Spain, are entitled to deduct from their tax bill all property-related expenses. Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway tax residents may also benefit from these generous tax deductions. Switzerland is excluded.

That is quite a lot of money you can offset every tax quarter, greatly mitigating your landlord tax bill on renting out. This new tax change translates into average tax savings of 70%, or more, for landlords. If you are not EU-resident, you cannot benefit from it.

This hinges on you receiving from your suppliers a VAT invoice. It must meet the following requirements.

Not submitting quarterly tax returns in Spain on your rental income is no longer an option, following new draconian tax laws that have turned all holiday platforms, and other intermediaries, into tax office whistleblowers retroactively as from the 1st of January 2018. All your rental income is now being reported to the Spanish taxman, unbeknownst to you. Fines for non-compliance are very steep. More on this here: Property portals and rental platforms to pass on landlord details to the Spanish Tax Authorities. Are you prepared? AirBnb, for example, explains its new tax ‘sharing’ data policy with the Spanish Tax Office on its website.

You may claim as tax relief all the following property-related expenses:

  • Interests arising from a loan to buy the property (i.e. mortgage loan).

  • Local taxes and administrative charges and surcharges that impact on the rental income or else on the property itself (i.e. IBI tax, SUMA tax, refuse charge).

  • Expenses arising from formalising rental contracts such as lets or sublets (i.e. Notary and/or Land Registry fees); legal defence (i.e. hiring a lawyer for tenant eviction purposes).

  • Maintenance costs may be offset; refurbishment expenses (improvements) are excluded (however, you may offset them on selling on the property).

  • Community of owners’ fees: these receipts have no VAT, by law.

  • Home insurance premiums: fire, theft, civil liability etc.

  • Property repairs: plumbing, roof retiling, painting, pool pump etc.

  • Utility invoices: electricity, water, gas, internet, and landline.

  • Cleaning: cash payments are not tax-deductible, you need a VAT invoice.

  • Concierge, gardening, alarm & security services (i.e. gated communities).

  • Lawyer’s fees: are 100% tax-deductible! To calculate and submit you quarterly tax returns.

  • Property management fees: to manage your rentals.

  • Advertising expenses: online/offline.

  • Marketing expenses.

  • Home depreciation and amortization. The calculation is 3% on the highest value of the following two: sales price or cadastral value; the value of the land is excluded.You are tax resident in the Union or EEA (your nationality is irrelevant). 
  • The expenses you claim are in direct relation towards the upkeep of the property i.e. claiming travelling expenses would be excluded.

  • You have VAT invoices to back up your tax relief claim.

- Is your tax advisor reducing your tax bills by 70%, no?

- Does he moan it is much too complicated, or make up excuses?

- Do you suspect he’s holding back on you?

Don’t put up with it! If you dislike time-wasters and overpaying taxes, come and speak to us. We will reduce your tax bill by 70%, on average. Call or email us to book an appointment. We will review your personal tax situation and advise accordingly. The procedure is fast and easy. We make life simple.


We offer the most competitive fees in the market.

We are specialized in taxation

Larraín Nesbitt Lawyers, small on fees, big on service.

Larraín Nesbitt Lawyers is a law firm specialized in taxation, conveyancing, inheritance and litigation. We will be very pleased to discuss your matter with you. You can contact us by e-mail at, by telephone on (+34) 952 19 22 88 or by completing our contact form to book an appointment.

Article also published at Spanish Property InsightSave 70% on your landlord tax bill

Soviet mural in Karaghandy, Kazakhstan.

By Raymundo Larraín Nesbitt
Director of Larraín Nesbitt Lawyers
8th of January 2019


Last December saw a number of changes afoot which could easily trip you up faster than having to explain to someone why Brexit will have no impact in our life’s, ha!

If you have been following our articles and blog posts, you will be aware that Spain has undergone a spectacular two-digit rental yield growth YOY over the last three years. This outstanding advance can be pinned down to a number of factors, but it is not the point of this article to digress and delve in the underlying causes. To simplify, the main two causes have been a landmark pro-landlord amendment to Spain’s Tenancy Act from June 2013 and foremost the irruption of new big players such as property portals i.e. AirBnb. Adopting more relaxed laws coupled with the advent of holiday platforms account for this huge spike in asking rental prices.

As a result of the unbridled growth in rental yields, given how Spain’s rental market traditionally remained sluggish as laws were clearly biased pro-tenant for historical reasons, whole generations of young Spaniards are now being locked out of the market. Despite a severe correction of property prices post-bubble that saw an average price drop of 50% across the board, the truth is that Spanish youngsters still struggle to get a grip on the first rung of the property ladder. A combination of precarious jobs, low wages and high asking rental prices has led to almost 50% of those aged 18 to 35 years old to still live with their parents in Madrid, for example (source: El País).

Spain’s government, ideologically of centre left wing, has taken a series of measures to ensure these problems are challenged in benefit of society. They have increased the minimum wage by almost 30%, the largest increase over the last 40 years, and have now directly tackled the rental problem by enacting a batch of new pro-tenant regulation that greatly empowers long-term tenants (in detriment of landlords). These changes – fortunately – hardly affect holiday lettings.

There is talk that the government’s hard left-wing allies, feel these changes fall short and want to take matters a step further; they have steadily mounted pressure to take a bolder stance and actually go as far as to determine – by decree – rental prices. Whilst this state price allocation has not occurred as of yet, it would indeed be a very misguided step in the wrong direction. Some would even argue this policy has a whiff of communism.

In all my articles I clearly position myself against such state interventionism because, at least to my mind, they clearly introduce market distortions creating serious anomalies and imbalances. We are not in fact living in a planned economy and the government has no business in fixing renting prices by decree.

As an example of this, back in 2017 the Balearics property market was booming, it was Spain’s undisputed hot spot leading the property pack. The local ruling hard left-wing coalition decided to cool down sales prices and asking rental prices in benefit of youngsters seeking affordable accommodation by passing a new stringent regulation that severely restricted holiday lettings. In their minds, they thought these well-intentioned changes would bring down asking rental prices to a more affordable level allowing more young people on low wages to let. Reality bites.

I unequivocally criticized these new measures as counterproductive in my article New Balearics holiday rental law – 8th September 2017. Not 6 months had elapsed since this clumsy law had  been approved, when the Balearics property market crashed, going from a spectacular 15% growth year-to-year to sales plunging by almost 30% as can be read in a local newspaper.

You would think that, at the very least, after grinding the Balearics market to a standstill the ruling coalition managed to cool off asking rental prices, yes? Wrong. They increased by over two digits YOY.

This is because the market is ‘wise’ and will adjust itself accordingly. If you artificially stifle supply (by creating draconian requirements for holiday lets that effectively wipe out 50% of supply) but demand remains unabated, then the logical consequence is a price hike of the good or commodity, which is exactly what’s happened. Moreover, ironically a hard left-wing coalition have made the rich richer and the poor, poorer. They have indirectly greatly benefitted well-off owners of detached villas, who are now unshackled to offer their properties as holiday lets without restrictions, as opposed to more humble landlords who own city centre flats and who have seen their owner’s rights curtailed as they have been outright banned from offering them as holiday lettings.

Regarding the ‘brutal’ increase in the minimum wage from last December – whilst commendable – in practice will likely greatly disincentivise (understatement) businesspersons from hiring new employees as in addition to the minimum wage, employers must also pay for Social Security which is over 1/3 of the wage on top. Furthermore, it may even lead to massive layoffs. January 2019 in fact saw the largest figure of employees being let go by companies, with over 274,000. This is the worst figure in over a decade, not even during the recent Great Recession were the figures this bad. To put these numbers into perspective, that is 100,000 more workers losing their jobs than in the same period in the previous year (176,000 in January 2018). Clearly, there is a correlation between the government’s (clumsy) vast increase of the minimum wage last December (the largest in four decades) and thousands of people losing their jobs on the following month (source: Idealista).

Whilst it is always commendable in life to aspire to lofty ideals, these have real consequences when put into practice; this is particularly true of those politicians who have a penchant for them and who have never in their life worked in the private sector having lived off public stipends for all their life.

Politicians wield huge power and should carefully ponder the consequences of their ill-thought actions in the real economy and above all, and most fundamentally, on how these changes impact on ordinary families’ life’s.

Changes to Spanish rental laws

The Government approved by Royal Decree last December a spate of game-changers for the rental market. Legal persons acting as landlords should be acutely aware of such changes if they rent or plan to rent out in Spain long term. Physical landlords should take note of the first bullet point.

The idea is to keep it simple and briefly list the most significant changes without going into esoterics. All changes effective from the 19th of December 2018. Prior signed rental agreements follow previous regulation, unless agreed otherwise.

I will be taking as reference my 2016 article  Urban Rental Law in Spain – Spain’s Tenancy Act (Ley de Arrendamientos Urbanos, LAU). I will take for granted legal concepts and will make no effort to explain them; if you are at a loss for example on mandatory and tacit renewal periods, you should read the above article to understand where I’m coming from.

It is strongly advised to read in tandem the above-mentioned article with the brief bullet points collated below to get the big picture on what’s changed in 2019.

  • Physical landlords: 5 years mandatory renewal period on long-term rentals (plus 3 years tacit renewal periods). Was three years plus one.

  • Legal landlords: 7 years mandatory rental period on long-term rentals (plus 3 years tacit renewal periods). Was three years plus one.

  • Legal landlords: additional bank guarantees demanded by a landlord on long-term rentals may not exceed a two-month deposit. Landlords typically request additional guarantees besides the compulsory one-month tenant deposit, especially when a tenant is a non-resident (because of the increased financial risk). These guarantees are now capped for legal persons acting as landlords. For physical landlords there is no change and may keep requesting additional guarantees in excess of the 2-month deposit.

  • Legal landlords: landlords – by law – will pay the commission to estate agencies on tenancy agreements: it was the case that tenants paid half or all this commission whether directly or not.

  • Holiday lettings: Spain’s Horizontal Act is amended allowing Community of Owners to vote by a simple majority of 3/5 to ban outright holiday rentals within a community. I had already pointed out in a blog post in 2017 that this step was necessary, as the Horizontal Property Act at the time required unanimity to ban them, which logically was never going to happen because landlords would vote against it because of their vested interest. This measure has no retroactive effects.

  • Holiday lettings: Spain’s Horizontal Act is amended allowing Community of Owners to increase the communal quota assigned to a landlord (capped at 20%) of the overall community budget. In plain English, communities of owners may now vote to increase the community quota of a property owner who uses his property/ies as holiday lettings. This agreement will have no retroactive effects. 


In my view these changes are a faux pas and will understandably make landlords (specifically those acting as legal persons) wary of renting out long-term thereby greatly restricting supply (as legal persons have thousands of units in their possession). Who in their right mind wants to lock themselves into an eight-year contract, or a ten-year for legal persons, losing possession of the property for that long? There has to be an attractive incentive to counter the increased risk these changes bring.

Whilst these changes no doubt can be electorally capitalized, garnering legions of votes on polling day from disenfranchised young men and women who are in need of affordable accommodation, it is uncertain they will actually benefit tenants.

It should be noted that landlords had already been dumping long-term contracts over the previous three years in benefit of the far more lucrative short-term holiday lettings restricting furthermore the long-term supply of properties.

These new changes in law will further compound and exacerbate an already scant supply of long-term accommodation leading to a foreseeable hike of rental prices across the board as more and more landlords will pull out from long-term rentals because of the increased perceived risks for them; exactly the opposite effect of what is sought by lawmakers on passing this new regulation nationwide which is vying to make accommodation more affordable for everyone, especially the more vulnerable collectives on precarious McJobs with low wages, namely youngsters.

Alas don’t fret, ‘fortunately’ for us the government has this base covered as there is talks of planning to intervene rental prices (shortly), goaded by their left-wing political allies, setting them out by decree like in a planned economy! Let us hope common sense prevails and this clumsy policy is not adopted by the incumbent.

I just cannot begin to express how wrong and harmful this decision would be and how counterproductive it could prove for the overall rental market. We’ve already seen last year how a well-meaning (albeit naïve) political decision by a hard-left-wing coalition in the Balearics led the property market to plunge into chaos resulting in fact in the opposite effect of what was sought; a two-digit hike in rental prices YOY (and mounting) making life of all those seeking affordable rental accommodation in the Balearics even more miserable.

Only time can tell whether these well-meant pro-tenant changes introduced by Spain’s government will in fact benefit (long-term) tenants, or not.

My money is it won’t.

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"Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself.”

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828 – 1910). Was an unparalleled writer of universal acclaim author of pivotal novels such as War and Peace and Anna Karenina. His works attained the pinnacles of realist fiction. The strife’s of the Crimean War imbued in him a strong religious sense that would lead him to reinterpret the teachings of Jesus coalescing in his ideas of non-violent resistance. These ideas are epitomised in his work The Kingdom of God is Within You which would go on to greatly influence two of the most towering figures of the 20th century, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr.

Larraín Nesbitt Lawyers, small on fees, big on service.

Larraín Nesbitt Lawyers is a law firm specialized in taxation, inheritance, conveyancing, and litigation. We will be very pleased to discuss your matter with you. You can contact us by e-mail, by telephone on 952 19 22 88 or by completing our contact form

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Posted by on 05/12/2019 21:19:00

Investor Perspective

The past sixteen months have been exceptional for property sales within Spain, especially in Javea & Moraira. This demand has stimulated price increases of 6.3% during the first quarter for 2016 year on year, according to Eurostat, the European Union’s Statistics Institute. This is the largest increase since the third quarter of 2007 when we had the Spanish property boom!

After six years of price reductions we have now had eight consecutive quarters of price increases. Towards the end of 2015, data shows property price increases of over 8.5%. 2016 has continued with price increases. On the face of it, it would seem that prices have certainly recovered well from the price reductions throughout the crisis years.

We must be mindful that it was the low prices that attracted the buyers, especially UK buyers when sterling was stronger. This encouraged confidence and stimulated further growth and consequently prices have been increasing but for how long this will continue no one knows. Demand for property looks like it will continue as investors scramble to find safer investments. This means there is still some upside to price increases before it levels out.

Since Brexit happened business has been surprisingly good with UK buyers, however, the reality of the uncertainties we face leaving the EU are just about kicking in as investor confidence in the UK remains low, hence the value of the pound has recently plummeted. Whilst there are many eurozone countries still buying property in Spain, the UK has historically made up a massive 15% of total foreign property purchases and at least 20% of the local Moraira/Javea market, which has attracted many British investors for the past 30 years. I expect some UK buyers will be deterred by all the uncertainties surrounding them but there will always be many Brits buying in Spain regardless. This was proven during the 2008 crisis.

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Posted by on 10/15/2016 09:18:00

Rental Law Spain

The new Spanish rental law is now obligatory and worth knowing! This is a scanned document from Abogados Romeu & Partners of Moraira. We will be advising all past and future clients of the new rental law. For further information please contact a legal adviser.

See Here:New Spanish Rental Law Valencia Region

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Posted by on 03/10/2016 16:47:00

Spanish Property Sales update Q1-Q2 2015

Statistics from the National Statistics Institute.

Property investment in Spain continues to grow, increasing by 5.1% for Q2, helping to expand the Spanish economy by 3.1% during Q2 year on year. Employment in the sector has risen significantly by 9.2%. Job creation is rising at its fastest pace so far this century!
The total amount of wealth created in the sector has also been on the rise and was up by 5.8% in Q2. This is the largest increase since 2001. Driven by greater demand for properties together with increased employment in the sector.

Property prices are up by 5.1% year on year for Q2, having registered a 2.65% increase overall year on year. The correction in prices during the crisis topped out at an average decrease of 30% but this is now 29% signalling the market has already bottomed out on average.

Property sales so far for 2015 are up a massive 11.12% year on year. The increased sales were mainly due to the increase of resales up by a substantial 43.56% whilst new builds decreased by 39.61%.

The Valencia Community were one of the best performers in property sales taking a 10.1% slice. According to the Spanish land registry, foreign buyers made up 12.82% of all property purchases made in Spain during Q1. Sales have been primarily driven by the increase of British buyers, up a massive 37.3% year on year. This means British buyers made up 19.85% of all foreign purchases, meaning one in five buyers are Brits!

All this positive news means property stock has been selling well, especially in the Valencia Community. In Javea and Moraira which has become extremely popular with the more discerning buyer, well priced quality property stock has been pretty much stripped out up to 350,000 euros. Most of what is left behind are projects in need of modernisation. This is leaving property agents with a major problem because it is not being replaced at the same pace! Current demand in this price band has overtaken supply, consequently you see nearly every agent advertising for more stock with clients waiting! All in all well priced property is getting very hard to find but fortunately, we have our finger on the pulse!

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Posted by on 10/11/2015 09:16:00

Spanish Property News

Costa Blanca and Costa del Sol leading market recovery
Data for 2014 showed that it was the year that the Spanish property sector stabilised after the turbulent years of crisis which it had endured since 2008. When looking at this data it becomes evident that two of the provinces benefiting most from the upturn are Malaga (Costa del Sol) and Alicante (Costa Blanca).

In 2014 only the provinces where Spain’s two major cities are located (Madrid and Barcelona) saw more property sales than Alicante and Malaga. The provinces fared even better when looking just at new-build sales with Alicante in second place with 9,985 sales and Malaga in third with 8,661.

The two coastal provinces are benefiting from the incredible rise in the number of foreign buyers which has been witnessed over the last few years. Foreign buyers now make up 13.88% of the market (Q4 2014) and many of them look no further than the Costa Blanca and Costa del Sol which are undoubtedly Spain’s two most recognized coasts internationally.

As the new-build sales figures suggest, the two coasts are among the only areas of Spain where developers are building new projects. The Costa Blanca South has seemingly already shaken off the shackles of the crisis and has become an epicentre of new construction with developers now starting to increase prices in areas such as Orihuela Costa.

The Costa del Sol was also one of the first areas of Spain to start seeing signs of positivity in its property sector. The coast, which is driven by the allure of destinations such as Marbella and Fuengirola, is now reported to have a lack of new-build property with demand outstripping supply in certain areas.

The future looks even brighter due to the diversification of the foreign market which has occurred since the crash. The British market remains strong with an 18.62% market share in Q4 2014 but does not dominate as it once did with the remaining 80%+ of the market being spread across numerous nationalities.

Foreign markets with huge growth potential have also started to show interest in Spanish property with Russian buyers becoming a prominent force over the last few years and the Chinese also increasing their share of the foreign market to over 4% in the last quarter of 2014 which bodes well for the future.

Also the more traditional markets are picking up with the British increasing their market share from 18.06% to 18.62% from Q3 to Q4 2014, and the Germans from 6.45% to 7.25% in the same period. All this paints a positive picture of the Spanish property sector: a picture that should continue to improve over the coming years.

INE releases positive sales data for 2014
The Spanish National Statistics Institute (INE) has released its data for sales made in December 2014 and its round up of data for the year of 2014. Results are extremely positive with sales up by 15.7% year-on-year for December and a 2.2% increase being recorded for 2014 as a whole.

The annual increase ends years of extreme decreases in the number of sales of Spanish property with sales dropping by 18.1% in 2011, 11.5% in 2012 and 1.9% in 2013. A total of 319,389 homes were sold in Spain during 2014 which is down 59% from the peak in 2007 when 775,300 homes were sold.

Data shows a clear split between the first and second halves of the year with sales rebounding strongly in the last six months of 2014 and double digit year-on-year percentage increases in sales have been recorded from September onwards (September +13.7%, October +16%, November +14% and December +15.7%).

Re-sales were the driving force behind the increase in sales and made up 63% of total sales with 199,943 transactions up 18.4% on 2013. New-build performed badly during 2014 and accounted for the remaining 37% of sales with 119,446 transactions, a figure that was down by 16.9% on the previous year.

The Spanish regions which recorded the strongest sales increases in 2014 according to INE data were the Balearic Islands with an 18.5% increase, Navarra: +13.9% and the Canary Islands: +12%. The largest declines in sales were registered in La Rioja: -25.1%, Castilla-la-Mancha: -12.6% and Murcia: -6.3%.

The annual change for other important regions was as follows – Madrid: +6.9%, Catalonia: +3.8%, the Valencia region: +2.5% and Andalucia: +0.3%. The highest number of transactions per 100,000 inhabitants was in the Valencia region with 1,182, it was followed by the Balearic Islands: 1,043 and the Canary Islands: 1,015.

Banks increased transaction volume and value in 2014
Although Spanish banks continue to hold large portfolios of property on their books, the rate at which they are being removed is increasing. In 2014 listed Spanish banks sold and leased a total of 86,726 properties which marks an 18.7% increase on 2013. The total value of these property transactions was €13,619 million, up 6.4% on 2013.

Caixa Bank recorded the most impressive numbers with 23,400 property sales and leases, 35,870 if including those made through developers supported by the bank. The value of these transactions was €2,512 million although this rose to €5,432 if including sales and leases made by third parties.

The bank seems to have benefited from its focus on leasing a large number of its properties. Rentals accounted for €1,132 million, 45% of the €2,512 million in direct turnover made by the bank from property. The results provide further evidence of the strengthening of the Spanish rental market and the possibilities available in the buy-to-let sector.

Other major banks with significant transaction volumes in 2014 were BBVA which shifted 23,069 properties for a total value of €1,932 million and Banco Sabadell (Solvia) with 16,172 properties for €2,774 million. The banks will hope that 2015 will see similar success and allow them to move on even larger amounts of their stock.
Permission to re-publish granted by Fuster & Associates.

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Posted by on 02/19/2015 09:01:00

Property News

Profitability of Buy to Let increasing in Spain
Purchasing a property as a buy-to-let investment is growing in popularity in Spain and data released by the property portal Idealista reveals that it is also becoming more profitable. The study, based on Q4 2014 sales and rentals price data, shows that residential property now offers on average a 5.3% annual yield up from 4.7% in Q4 2013.

In 2014 we published an article on the conditions in the Spanish property sector which seemed to make it a prime target for buy-to-let investors. This new data backs up this theory and makes purchasing a property in Spain as a buy-to-let a viable option and one which foreigners may choose in order to take advantage of current low prices.

This investment vehicle could be of particular interest to younger first-time-buyers from countries such as the United Kingdom, Belgium and Sweden where in many cases they are priced out of the market. A Spanish buy-to-let property could be an ideal way to get onto the property ladder and begin to build capital.

Some UK pensioners could also be looking at this as an interesting opportunity. The UK government will enact pension reforms this April which will allow pensioners more freedom to use their pensions as they wish including cashing them in as a lump sum. This should lead to more pensioners searching for investments with stronger returns than annuities or bonds.

Looking at the Idealista data in more detail one can see that the provincial capitals of the major tourist provinces generally offer stronger than average returns for investors. Alicante offers a 5.4% yield, Malaga: 5.3%, Palma de Mallorca: 5.6% and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria an impressive 5.9%.

These figures are better than those for Spain’s two major cities with yields in Madrid at 5.1% and in Barcelona at 4.7%. Office property offers even higher yields for investors at an average of 6.7% with yields for retail property at 6.9%. Garage space is currently the worst performer with average yields of just 3.6%.

Chinese investors looking for exclusivity, quality and professional management. Since the Golden Visa was launched in Spain demand from China has risen although perhaps not at the rate people were expecting. However, the vast potential of the Chinese market and the steady growth in the number of Chinese buyers over the last couple of years makes it a market that is worth pursuing for Spanish property professionals.

There are two main types of Chinese buyer, those that are looking to relocate permanently to Spain and are therefore interested in purchasing apartments close to the centre of large cities and those who are looking at the property solely as an investment, whether this be to obtain the Golden Visa or not.

The second group of Chinese buyers will not only have a larger budget but also a broader scope in terms of the location of the property and will look at it in terms of its rental potential and potential capital growth. This type of Chinese buyer will look for property situated either in prime areas of major cities or areas of the coast/mountains in which demand is highest.

Mr Fan, a Chinese employee at the agency Grupo Inmobiliario Alting, believes that Chinese clients are more demanding than other nationalities and value quality of service above price and even product. He says in an interview with news portal Inmodiario that the Chinese want the process to be transparent and for the agency to be able to offer a full service.

Therefore they prefer agencies that have Chinese staff and can provide legal services in Chinese, either directly or through a partner, and also want the agency to be able to provide interior design, the option to purchase additional products/features for the property as well as post-purchase services such as property management.

The type of property preferred by Chinese investors are apartments of 2 or 3 bedrooms, either new-build or unique re-sales, with strong rental potential and priced at ?500,000 or above. Some also have more specific requirements such as only considering properties which are south facing due to Feng Shui.

Registry statistics for Q2 2014 showed a 45% year-on-year increase in the number of Spanish property purchases made by the Chinese. Their percentage share of sales to foreigners is also on the increase with Chinese buyers representing 3.95% of all sales to foreigners in Q3 2014, up from 3.31% in Q3 2013.

This suggests that, although the Chinese may be more demanding in terms of what they expect from property sector professionals, it is worth catering to their needs.

Moody’s and Eurostat see positives in Spanish property sector
The credit ratings agency Moody’s and the European Union statistics institute Eurostat see Spanish property prices as having bottomed out. According to Eurostat the price of property in Spain increased by 0.2% in the third quarter of 2014 while Moody’s believes that price data is improving in line with the strengthening of the Spanish economy.

Fernando Encinar, Head of Research at Idealista, a major Spanish property portal, believes that prices have now completely stabilised in prime areas where there is interest from investors. However, he sees prices as still having further downside in many spanish provinces although price falls will be minor.

Moody’s sees mortgage default rates as having already hit maximums in Spain as the country’s economic environment improves. Spain’s economy is now growing, unemployment is on the decline and consumer confidence is rising: all factors which will cause the number of evictions due to non-payment of mortgages to decrease.

Meanwhile the Eurostat price data for Q3 2014 showed Ireland leading the increases with a 6.2% rise followed by Latvia (4.9%) and Croatia (4.7%). Spain’s increase is a relatively small 0.2% but the fact that Eurostat is also recording rising Spanish property prices shows that there is now a wide consensus on price stabilisation in the country.

Mortgage concessions still on the rise
Data for November from the Spanish National Statistics Institute show mortgage concessions as having risen by 14.2% year-on-year. This strong increase marks the sixth consecutive month of double digit rises after concessions rose in June (19%), July (28.8%), August (24%), September (29%) and October (18%).

Mortgage statistics are important in determining the health of a country’s property sector and the impressive rebound in the second half of 2014 is evidence of the Spanish sector’s return to health. Data for the first 11 months of 2014 reveals a year-on-year fall of 0.2% on the same period of 2013 showing an annual stabilisation in concessions.

November saw a total of 15,900 mortgages granted worth a total of ?1.666million, a figure which is up 12.2% on November 2013. The average value of mortgages conceded during the month did fall however, and was down by 1.7% year-on-year to ?104,817. Concessions were down on October by 10.1% with total capital lent down by 5.6% on the previous month.

The Spanish regions which registered the highest number of mortgage concessions for November were Andalucia with 3,183, Madrid (2,565), Catalonia (2,264) and the Valencia region (1,743). Only three regions recorded year-on-year decreases in concessions and these were Cantabria (-24.2%), Galicia (-17.1%) and the Balearics (-12.7%).
Permission to re-publish granted by Fuster & Associates.

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Posted by on 02/05/2015 09:08:00

Spain Property News 2014-2015

Foreign investment in Spanish property rises 28.4%
The Ministry of Public Works in Spain has released data which shows that from January to September 2014 foreign investment in Spanish property increased by 28.4% year-on-year. The total worth of this investment was €6.077 billion and the region which benefited most was the Valencia region.

The majority of the investment was made in resale property with foreigners spending €5.404 billion on re-sales, 33.4% more than during the same period of 2013. Investment in new-build property was down in year-on-year times albeit only very slightly, €672.9 million was invested from January to September 2014 down 1.09% on that period of 2013 (€680.3 million).

Foreign investment was most concentrated in the Valencia region and in particular the province of Alicante which is of course where the Costa Blanca is located. €1.284 billion was invested in Alicante province 85% of the total of €1.507 billion which was invested in the Valencia region and just 10% less than the total for Andalucia (€1.429 billion).

New-build property prices fell by 2.2% in 2014
The Spanish valuations company Sociedad de Tasacion has released its price data for 2014 which reveals that Spanish new-build property became 2.2% cheaper over the course of the year. Their study, which has been published annually since 1985, took as a sample 48,000 individual properties from a total of 3,200 developments across Spain.

The company has recorded a 40.2% decrease in new-build property prices from their peak but their statistics show that price falls are now slowing. In the second half of 2013 prices were down 3%, this had slowed to a 1.8% fall for the first half of 2014 while during the second half prices decreased by just 0.4%.

The statistics are based on properties located in provincial capitals and towns with populations of 25,000 or above. The changes mean that the average price per square metre is now at €1,994 which means that one could expect to pay around €179,400 for a standard 90m2 new-build property located in a Spanish town.

Prices of new-build property dropped in all Spanish regions as well as all of the provincial capitals. The greatest regional decreases were recorded in La Rioja (-3.7%), Aragón (-3.5%) and Asturias (-3.1%) while the most marginal falls were in Navarra (-1.2%), Castilla y Leon and the Canary Islands (both -1.7%) and Galicia (-1.8%).

The Sociedad de Tasación data is in line with what most statistics agencies are currently reporting with property prices still dropping but at an ever slower rate. 2015 should be the year in which the general downward trend in property prices finally comes to an end for both new-build and resale property.

INE: Property sales rise 16% in October
The increase in sales continued in October with 26,468 properties being sold during the month which is a 16% year-on-year rise. The increase was higher than the 13.7% year-on-year rise recorded for September and further backs up the claims being made that the crisis in the Spanish real estate sector is over.

The October statistics put 2014 on track to beat the total number of sales in 2013, in the first 10 months there have been 0.1% more sales than in the same period last year. When the October data is compared with September’s it shows a decrease of 2.1% as there were 556 fewer sales completed in October than there were in September (27,024).

Resales continued to outperform new-builds with the number of resales up by 42.1% year-on-year to 18,341 while new-build sales dropped 17.9% to a total of 8,127 for the month. Resales therefore made up 69.3% of all sales in October, new-builds accounted for the remaining 30.7%.

Sales of urban land on the rise in Spain
Sales of urban land in Spain rose by 21% year-on-year in the third quarter of 2014 according to statistics provided by the Ministry of Public Works. There were a total of 4,293 sales of land completed in Q3 which also represented an increase of 13.2% on Q2 in which 3,548 land sales were carried out.

However, land prices appear to still be falling and the average price paid for the land was down 3.3% year-on-year to €142.6/m2, this figure was also down on Q2 by 2.6%. Prices fell even more sharply in municipalities of 50,000 people or more and were down 19.2% year-on-year to just €208.6/m2.

The lowest prices per metre squared in municipalities with populations of over 50,000 were found in Badajoz (€67.5/m2), Murcia (€68.3/m2) and Burgos (€121.9/m2). At the other end of the scale the three municipalities in which land cost the most during Q3 were Barcelona (€539.1/m2), Guipuzcoa (€415.6/m2) and the Balearic Islands (€412. 8/m2).

The increase in sales is clearly positive news for the Spanish real estate sector as a whole and shows that confidence is rising with development activity also on the increase. Spanish banks will be especially pleased as they have large swathes of repossessed land which has been so far very difficult to offload but may soon find buyers if the upwards trend continues.

Permission granted to republish. Data supplied by Fuster & Associates

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Posted by on 01/12/2015 08:48:00

Spanish Property Report December 2014

BBVA report predicts positive 2015
The Spanish bank BBVA has released a report on the Spanish property sector in which it forecasts that there will be a moderate recovery in 2015. The bank believes that demand for Spanish property is now at the point of inflection and prices are rapidly stabilising in what is a real turning point for the Spanish market.

The report called Spain’s Real Estate Flash (Flash inmobiliario de España) was released by BBVA Research and BBVA Real Estate. The bank will begin releasing monthly updates on the Spanish property sector which will analyse the most important market variables: prices, sales, construction and mortgage concessions.

The report states that data up to November 2014 reveals a rise in demand which is due to an increase in employment and also an improvement in the levels of consumer confidence in Spain. Economic improvements are also leading to the recent rises in lending which is providing a further boost for the market.

Positive developments can also be seen in the number of construction licence concessions so far this year, up 5.7% to September (Ministry of Public Works stats). INE statistics show that investment in Spanish real estate is also up and grew by 1.3% during the third quarter of 2014.

For BBVA the construction sector has already bottomed out and there will now be a rise in residential development. Prices have entered a period of stabilisation and everything points towards there being a positive 2015 during which the sector builds on the promising changes which have occurred in 2014.

5 key elements to consider when buying your Spanish property
The purchase of a property is one of the most important moments in anyone’s life and it is essential for any buyer to enter the process with a clear idea of what they want and with an awareness of any possible pitfalls. This is especially true when buying a property abroad as you may not be fully accustomed to the country’s culture and language.

While there are possibly hundreds of things one must consider when buying in Spain here we have listed 5 of the most important aspects to keep in mind:

Budget: Before anything else it is important to set a budget for your purchase. Having a clearly defined budget will streamline your property search and mean that estate agencies can quickly and effectively identify suitable properties saving you time and money. When calculating your budget it is important to bear in mind that you will need to factor in an extra 10-15% to cover taxes and fees depending on where you are buying and what type of property (new-build or resale). These costs will be higher if you are getting a mortgage on the property.

Legal advice: It is vital to seek independent professional legal advice for a purchase in Spain to avoid making costly mistakes and to give you peace of mind. Your lawyer will undertake all the necessary due diligence on the purchase and, if granted power of attorney, will be able to act on your behalf and save you having to make numerous trips to Spain to open a bank account, obtain an NIE number and other necessary procedures.

Mortgage: As mentioned in point 1, a mortgage will mean you will incur additional costs on your purchase as extra fees will have to be paid to the Notary and bank charges will also apply. Currently it is possible to get up to 80% finance when purchasing from a bank and if buying a resale property you will normally be able to get between 50-60% of the property’s value covered by a mortgage. Also, be sure to shop around as some banks will offer much better deals than others.

Objective: What do you want from the property, will it be a permanent residence, a holiday home or purely an investment or a mix of these? It’s useful to know exactly what you aim to achieve from your purchase as it will affect the location and type of property you should be considering. It is also important to do research on regional laws to ensure your objective is achievable. For example an investment in a Barcelona property to let as a tourist rental would have to be made with extreme care as there is currently a freeze on the concession of tourist rental licences and a growing hostility towards the private holiday rental market in the city.

Dream property: Draw up a list of requirements for the property itself and factor in the budget and objective which you have decided upon. You will want to consider among other things whether you want a new-build or resale property, whether you want to buy on a development or not and what characteristics you want the property to possess. It is important of course to be realistic so first search for what is available on the market for around your budget to get an idea of what you will be able to expect to afford. Keep in mind that it is still a buyers market in Spain and that there is a lot of choice in many areas so you will be able to be more demanding with your specification.

Solvia studies the financing of 150 new developments
The health of Spain’s residential property sector is undeniably improving as we see increases in sales, price decreases slowing and a rise in mortgage concessions. Many believe that this final factor is the key: the banks are starting to lend again, and this appears to now not only be limited to lending to individuals but also to developers.

It has been revealed that Banco Sabadell, the owner of Solvia which acts as its real estate division, is studying the possibility of financing around 150 new developments in Spain. Banco Sabadell’s Director of Real Estate Investment, Joan Bertrán, stated that “in the last six months we have seen the recovery of the Spanish property development sector”.

Bertrán was speaking at a conference organised by the alumni organization of ESADE and admitted to those present that banco Sabadell is already financing development. He also mentioned the professionalism of the sector saying that the developers currently operating are good professionals and know they cannot “simply present any old project”.

The Director did say however, that the bank has very strict controls and both the developer and development must meet specific criteria in order to receive financing. He said that the bank approaches the applications as if they themselves were going to develop the projects in order to ensure they are completely viable.

Banco Sabadell has approximately ?12 billion worth of real estate assets under its control and develops around 900 properties annually. The bank’s real estate division Solvia has been one of the most successful in Spain and has won numerous awards for its marketing campaigns leading to it taking on assets from other banks to push through the sales channel.

Bertrán says that the main problem which Solvia currently has is with its land assets which are proving very difficult to sell as “there are currently no buyers for them”. He believes that for the sale of land to pick up the property sector as a whole will have to recover further as investments in land are more complex and risky than other types of property.
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INE: Second consecutive quarter of price increases
Spanish property prices have risen for the second consecutive quarter according to the statistics released by the National Institute of Statistics (INE) for the third quarter of 2014. Their data showed that there was an extremely marginal year-on-year rise of 0.3% in the price of Spanish real estate from July to September.

The increase is less than that which was recorded for the second quarter (0.8%) but shows that the freefall in prices has come to an end. Before the rise registered for the second quarter of 2014, INE stats had shown prices falling continuously from the second quarter of 2008 onwards.

In year-on-year terms, prices of new-build properties rose by 0.8%, a figure much higher than the price rise for resale property which stood at 0.1% for the quarter. Prices were up nationally on the previous quarter by 0.2% overall with new-build rising by 1.2% and a 0.0% change for resales.

Even with the nation al price increase the majority of Spain’s regions still registered decreases for Q3. The largest fall in prices was recorded in Navarra with a 6.9% drop, it was followed by Extremadura (-4.6%), La Rioja (-3.5%) and Castilla la Mancha (-3.2%). Prices also dropped in Castilla y León, Galicia, Aragón, the Basque Country, Asturias and the Canary Islands.

Increases were led by the region of Madrid where prices were up 2.8%, it was followed by Cantabria (2%), Murcia (1.5%), Ceuta and Melilla (1.4%), Catalonia (1.1%), the Valencia region (0.9%) and the Balearic Islands (0.5%). In Andalusia prices remained stable over the three months with data showing 0.0% change.

The statistics show that price data is starting to look more healthy in Spain’s major cities and principal tourist regions such as the Valencia region, Andalusia and the Balearics. It appears that prices have entered a phase of stabilisation which has been predicted by many market analysts and should prece de a return to sustained price increases.

Construction licence concessions up 5.7% for 2014
The number of construction licences conceded in Spain during the first 9 months of 2014 is up 5.7% on the same period of 2013. A total of 27,598 visas have been granted so far this year according to data released by the Ministry of Public Works and the stats for September were impressive with concessions up 31.6% year-on-year to 2,883.

If the current rate of concessions holds up for the rest of the year, i.e. if the year closes with a 5.7% increase on 2013, then the annual total would be 36,240. The total for 2013 was 34,288 licences while the level registered in 2012 of 44,162, 21% higher than the hypothetical total for the current year.

Almost 2 thirds of the licences from January to September this year (18,719) were granted for properties to be constructed in apartment blocks, this figure is up 7.2% on the first three quarters of 2013. The remaining 8,864 visas corresponded to detached properties and this also showed improvement year-on-year, up by 2.8%.

The Spanish government’s drive to get home owners and developers to invest in renovation and refurbishment of property seems to be having little effect. The number of visas granted to restore or refurbish properties stands at 16,841 so far in 2014, down 1.2% on 2013 while the number of concessions for extensions has fallen 20.6% to 1,165.

Permission granted to republish. Data supplied by Fuster & Associates

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Posted by on 12/10/2014 09:04:00

October Property News in Spain

4 signs that the Spanish property market is bottoming out
Most observers of the Spanish property market will have noticed that over the last few months the amount of positive news surrounding Spain’s property sector has increased markedly. This is not to say that the problems have disappeared but there are now clear signs that the market is finally bottoming out.

The Danish financial organization Saxo Bank believes that there are now four main signals of the crisis in the Spanish property sector coming to an end. In a recent report the bank cites changes in prices, mortgage concessions, construction and sales data as clear indicators that the worst is now over for Spanish property.

House prices: The data on Spanish property prices shows varying trends with a rise in the number of positive monthly and quarterly statistics being released. One of the strongest signals that prices are bottoming out was the INE data for the second quarter which showed a 0.8% increase in prices and became the first quarterly rise since 2008. The statistics agency Tinsa, although releasing data which showed a 4.3% decline in prices for the third quarter, believes that prices will stabilise by the end of this year, a view that is shared by many experts in the sector.

Construction licence concessions: The number of concessions of construction licences is a good gauge of the health of the sector as it reveals levels of confidence and expectation of demand. Although today’s figures of around 3,000 applications per month are a fraction of what they were at the height of the boom when the monthly figure was around 70,000, there are positive signs. Saxo Bank states that 2014 data shows applications were up by 30.2% year-on-year for the first six months of 2014.

Sales: Total sales are still down so far this year on 2013 but there are positive signals emerging with a run of five consecutive monthly increases from March to July and a further rise of 13.7% in September according to INE statistics. Saxo Bank claims that sales are now increasing at the equivalent rate of 6% annually.

Mortgage concessions: The numbers of mortgages being granted in Spain has fallen rapidly since the crisis took hold. However, Saxo Bank highlights the fact that the total amount of credit granted has been up year-on-year for the last six months and the number of mortgage concessions has also risen over the last three months. There is an appreciation now that the banks are regaining confidence to lend although with greater restrictions and stricter conditions than before the crisis.

BNP Paribas: Only way is up for Spanish property
Cortal Consors, the brokerage division of the French bank BNP Paribas has released statements claiming that the Spanish property sector has bottomed out. They forecast that we will see growth in both investment and construction of residential and non-residential property in 2015 and 2016.

Estefania Ponte, the company’s strategic and economic director, says that we have already seen positive changes in transactions, sales and investment volume. She states that the forecast improvements in the sector will be due to an increase in new construction and a rise in investment and purchases of properties.

The growth in residential construction which the analysts at Cortal Consors expect to see is 0.5% for 2015 and 1.2% in 2016. They also envisage increases in Spain’s GDP and have released positive forecasts which show a 1.4% rise for 2014 and impressive increases of 2.4% in 2015 and 2.6% in 2016.

The firm believes that Spain has made some important changes to the foundations of its economy which bode well for the future. They especially highlight exports and the fact that Spain has significantly reduced its reliance on other Eurozone countries by successfully diversifying its export network with a greater focus on Latin America.

Uptake of Spanish Golden Visas improves
The number of non-EU buyers that have opted to take advantage of Spain’s Golden Visa scheme has increased substantially since May according to an article published on Spain’s 20 minutos news portal. Data for the first 11 months of the scheme shows that 324 of the visas have now been granted.

This figure represents total uptake of the visa from its launch in October 2013 to September of this year and shows that the number of concessions has risen markedly since May by which time only 72 visas had been granted. The statistics for May had prompted many to write off the visa as a pointless gimmick but the latest figures show a definite improvement.

The Golden Visa programme allows non-EU nationals to apply for a visa to stay in Spain when purchasing a property worth ?500,000 or more. The visa allows the holder to travel freely within the Schengen zone, the possibility to apply for full residency after 5 years and the extens ion of the visa’s benefits to a spouse and children up to 18 years of age.

The total value of the transactions involving the Golden Visa is ?256.1 million so far. Although the new data shows a rise in interest in the visas it is still not as impressive as it was hoped that it would be on its launch. Many expect that the increase in concessions will continue at the current rate and uptake will rise significantly.

The visa is primarily aimed at Russian and Chinese investors and uptake has been strongest so far amongst investors of these nationalities. However, the fact that the scheme provides a fast track route to EU residency could also attract investors from countries such as Turkey and the Middle East.

The Portuguese Golden Visa programme has seen a stronger uptake in its first two years of operation with around 1,600 visas having been granted to date. However there is currently a corruption scandal connected with their programme which has seen seni or officials accused of illegal activity in relation to the concession of visas which may have inflated figures.

Increase in foreign buyers led by British
British buyers have led a strong increase in the number of foreigners buying Spanish property for the third quarter of 2014 according to the data which has been released by Spain’s property registrars. Foreigners now make 13.10% of all purchases of Spanish property which is a new record for the sector.

British nationals made 2.37% of all purchases of property in Spain during Q3 and 18.06% of foreign purchases up from 15.77% in the second quarter. The increase backs up the positive vibes coming from the British market in recent months with impressive attendances at the autumn A Place in the Sun exhibition and a feeling that Spanish property is now undervalued.

The British were followed by the French as the second most prolific nationality of foreign buyers with 1.37% of the total number of purchase in Spain and 10.48% of purchases made by foreigners. This represents an increase on the second quarter when French buyers ac counted for 10.11% of foreign purchases.

The Russians rounded off the top three making 0.98% of all purchases in Spain and 7.50% of all purchases by foreigners. There were interesting developments further down the ranking though as the Chinese increased their share of the foreign market to 3.95%, up from 3.1% in Q2 and providing a sign that the Chinese are gaining importance in Spain’s property sector.


Notaries: Sales up by 20.7% in September
The Spanish Notaries Public have released their sales and price data for the month of September which shows a further drop in average agreed prices but an impressive leap in sales. Sales increased to 26,778 for the month which means they have risen by 20.7% year-on-year in a further sign that they are now rebounding.

The increase for September meant that data for the third quarter of 2014 showed an 8.6% rise in sales. The Notaries explain the positive statistics by saying that they represent a normalization in sales after the elimination of tax breaks at the end of 2012 and also a general stabilisation in monthly property sales in Spain.

It is also impossible to ignore the incredible mortgage statistics for September which reveal a 49.7% year-on-year increase in concessions and a 37.6% rise for the third quarter as a whole. The average value of the mortgages granted during September also rose by 4.5% to ?111,004 per mor tgage.

The sales which were recorded by the Notaries during September did have a lower average value than in September 2013 with a year-on-year drop of 2.9% to an average of ?1,187/m2. The fall in the average value of properties sold was even greater for the third quarter as a whole with a decrease of 4%.

The increase in the number of sales for September was driven by resale property with year-on-year rise of 31.8% in the number of resales to 17,330. As has been the story so far in 2014 new build sales continued to struggle and fell by 32.8% on September 2013 to a total of 2,455 for the month.

Spain leads European construction growth
The data released by the EU statistics agency Eurostat for September shows Spain leading the way in construction sector growth with an increase of 9.1% year on year in construction activity. The figure is less than the 22% growth observed in August but is still a clear sign of the improving health of Spain’s construction sector.

Spain was followed in the rankings by the Czech Republic with 8.2% growth and Hungary with an increase of 7.3%. Spain’s Mediterranean neighbours didn’t fare as well with the largest declines being seen in Italy, down by 10.6%, Portugal, where activity dropped 5.2%, and France with a decrease of 3.2%.

The statistics for the European Union and the Eurozone were also negative with the EU experiencing a 1.7% fall in activity and the Eurozone seeing a 0.4% contraction year on year. Construction activity in the Eurozone was down 1.8% on August but increased 0.9% in the EU as a whole on last month.

The year on year increase for Spain marks the third consecutive month of increasing construction activity in the country with a 1.5% increase in July and 22% increase for August. Construction activity is one of the key metrics used to judge the health of a country’s real estate sector and these positive stats are extremely welcome.

Permission granted to republish. Data supplied by Fuster & Associates

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Posted by on 10/10/2014 15:23:00